The Philosophical Propaedeutic


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Pages: — Wirtschaftsphilosophie Wiesbaden , also in theoretical philosophy, e. Die absolute Form. Foreword to the second edition Foreword to the first edition General Literature Chapter 1. Anamnesis of the Human Spirit — Phenomenology a Introductory discipline and system component b Preface and Introduction c Sensibility reaches understanding d Self-consciousness attains reason e Spirit arrives at absolute knowing Chapter 7.

Philosophy of Subjective Spirit a Manifestation, subjective b Anthropology and theory of consciousness c Psychology Chapter Philosophy of Right and of History a Abstract right and morality b World of ethical life c Philosophy of history Chapter Philosophy of Art a Past character of art b Concept of art c Art ideal and system of art forms Chapter Philosophy of Religion a Concordance thesis b Hermeneutics of religion c Revealed religion as absolute religion Chapter Philosophy in its Concept and History a Three syllogisms b History of philosophy as developmental continuum of the idea c Afterword on dialectic and epilogue Index.

All academic libraries and institutes of higher education and their students at all levels as well as the non-specialist general readership concerned with modern philosophy in its widest range.

The philosophical propaedeutic /

Terms and Conditions Privacy Statement. Powered by: PubFactory. Sign in to annotate. This essay was later republished as the first part ' actualize' in his social and personal life. He thus speaks of recalcitrant of Kant's critique of religion, Religion within the Bounds ofMere Reason individuals being brought to a recognition of their true nature, their Alone. It is the purpose of punishment to bring criminals to Kant recognized that the ethical theory which he had expounded in the recognition of their own inner failings as well as to redress the his previous works suffered from one maj or defect.

The Will had imbalance produced by the original evil deed. If the Unlike Kant, however, Hegel does not remain at the level of mere Will was to be located within the 'phenomenal' self and thus within 'abstract' morality and moral theorizing. He seeks to advance to a the domain of cause and effect, it would require a miracle to raise any 'practical' morality which is founded in the active lives of ordinary man to the level at which he could become morally responsible.

Even citizens of a state. He thus goes on to expound his conception of if he were still free to recognize and assent to the ' categorical Sittlich k eit or a 'situated' ethic, as social ethicality, as opposed to the imperative' , the Moral Law, he ,would not be free to act upon the mere formalism of Kant's categorical imperative. Whereas Kant wished to make of ethics a rigid and pre-eminently rational science, Hegel goes HEGEL'S MATURE SYSTEM IN on to discuss the idea of a moral 'disposition' , or what it is to live a practical life in harmony wit:h one's fellow man from an innate but OUTLINE not necessarily rationally articulated sense of morality: The later parts of the Science of Laws, Morals and Religion are concerned to define the institutions of social life as actually existent and to demonstrate their place in a scheme as mutually dependent elements of one political, social and ethical educational process.

Each element, be it the family, or one of the organs of the State, is part of LOGIC what it is for a society to exist as a series of individuals in a social context. Each element performs its unique functions both in the Quality Being Quantity creation of this order and in its preservation. And each element at once constitutes and also reflects the prevailing moral ethos of that Measure society. Hegel, Werke volume 1 8, ed. Rosenkranz Berlin: Duncker and Humblot, 1 Space and Time 2 W. Absolute Mechanics 3 G.

Hegel, The Phenomenology of Sp irit, trans. Miller Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1 , p. Physics of the Universal Individuality 4 G. Hegel, ' S econd School Address ' , i n M. Rosenkranz, p p. Hegel, The Philosophy of R ight, trans. Psychology 1 1 G. Hegel, The Philosophy- of Mind, trans. Wallace Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1 , addition, p. As Will the Mind stands in a practical relation to itself. The practical way of acting [ Verhalten] , through which i t brings determination into its determinateness or opposes other determinations of its own in the place of those already existing in it without its cooperation, is to be distinguished from its theoretical way of acting.

Our Knowing contains obj ects, some of which we obtain a knowledge of through Sensuous Perception; others, however, have their origin in the Mind itself. The former, taken together, constitute the Sensuous World; the latter, the Intelligible World. In this process the occurs only in so far as the Ego makes it its own [assimilates it] or Ego determines the given things or obj ects, so that the former is posits it within itself.

And yet in this act it remains self-identical and active and the latter are passive, i. There may be presented to the Will, from with out, a great variety of incitements, motives and laws but man, in following the same, 4 does this only in so far as the Will itself makes these its own Practical Ability [ Vermogen] as such determines itself from within, determinations and resolves to actualize them. This, too, is the case i. The content of its determinations belongs to it and with the determinations of the Lower Appetites, or with what it recognizes that content for its own.

These determinations, proceeds from natural Impulses and Inclinations. By such an Act internal The Will has Moral Responsibility [Sch uld] in so far as a its practical determinations receive externality: i. Impulse is a A Deed [ Tat] is, as such, the produced change and determination of a natural self-determination which rests upon circumscribed feelings Being. To an Act [Handlung] , however, belongs only what lay in the and has a limited finite end in view which it cannot transcend.

In resolve or was in the consciousness [and] hence what the Will other words, it is the unfree, immediately determined, Lower acknowledges as its own. Appetite [niedere Begeh rungsvermogen] according to which man ranks as a creature of nature. Through Reflection he transcends Impulse 10 and its limitations, and not only compares it with the means of its The free Will, a s free, i s moreover not limited t o the determinateness gratification but also compares these means one with another and the and individuality through which one individual is distinguished from impulses one with another, and both of these with the object and end another but is Universal Will and the individual is, as regards his Pure of his own existence.

He then yields to the decision of Reflection and Will, a Universal Being. In this the Will remains self-identical only immediately extant through nature but is indifferent towards any and in form. It is, namely, conscious of its power to abstract from each every determinateness. In so far as it is such a actualize it.

It is Concrete Obj ect. A Concrete Idea is said to be analysed when the requisite that it wills only in-itself and has itself for its object. The determinations which are united in it as concrete are separated. The Pure Will, therefore, does not will some special content or other on intelligible world receives its content from Spirit [i.

Universal Will may be done. To Morals 'and Religion. Experience belongs this important feature: that we ourselves have perceived it. A distinction must however, be drawn between Elucidation of th e Introduction Perception and Experience. Perception has for its obj ect only a 1 single something which is determined in one way this moment and in Objects are particular somethings through their determinations as another way the next moment. If I repeat the Perception, and in the sensuous obj ects, for example, through their shape, size, weight, repeated perceptions take note of what remains the same and hold it colour, through the more or less firm combination of its parts, fast, this operation is properly termed Experience.

Experience through the purpose for which they are used, etc. If one, in his contains, for the most part, laws: i. There remains after the process a less all cases. The Experience contains, however, only the mere generality determined obj ect: i. If, however, I conceive of such a phenomenon and not the necessity of the connection.

When I abstract Since there are a multitude of objects concerning which we can all the determinations I have left only the conception of the a bsolutely have no Experience, for example the past, we are obliged to have Abstract Object. When one says 'Thing' , though he may mean recourse to the Authority of others. We b elieve them upon the mere 'Thing'. Authority of others which is probable. We often hold as probable that Sensuous Perception is in part external, in part internal.

Through which is really improbable and what is improbable often turns out to external [Sensuous Perception] we perceive things which are outside be the truth. An event receives its confirmation chiefly through its us in time and space, things which we distinguish from ourselves. Those who narrate to us an event must be and conditions which belong in part to our bodies and in part to our trustworthy, that is, they must have been in a position where it was souls.

One part of the Sensuous World contains such objects and their possible for them to have knowledge of it. We draw conclusions from determinations, as, for example; colours, that is, obj ects that have a the tone and manner in which they relate the event, in regard to their sensuous basis and have received a mental form. If I say, 'This table is degree of earnestness or the selfish purpose subserved by it.

When black' , I speak in the first place of this single concrete obj ect but, writers, under the reign of a tyrant, are lavish in his praises, we at secondly, the predicate 'black' which I affirm of it is a general once pronounce them to be flatterers. But if one makes special [quality] which belongs not merely to this single obj ect but to several mention of a good quality or deed of his enemy we are the more objects.

We cognize a real concrete object ready to believe his statements. This act of immediate apprehension is called Intuition. Experience, therefore, teaches only how objects are constituted and If anyone wishes to know truly what a rose or a pink or an oak is, not how they must be or how they ought to be. And this latter knowledge alone is true and further, in order to grasp the Concept of the 'plant' , one must knowledge. Since we must learn the grounds of an object from its again grasp the higher Concept whereupon the Concept of the 'plant' Concept, a knowledge of it in its entire compass, so too, if we would depends, and this is the Concept of an Organic Body.

In order to have learn the character of the Lawful, Moral and Religious, we must have the representation [idea] of bodies, surfaces, lines , and points , one recourse to the Concepts thereof. We can see there what passes for right and good or what Time as their generic ground. And so it is with Laws , Duties and proves itself to be right and good. Upon this phase it is to be Religion; they are merely particular determinations of Consciousness, remarked a that in order to know what deeds are right or good and which is their generic ground.

All would depend upon the view with which he undertook the But it is essentially in these things that the 'I' [Ego] exists. In so far as investigation. In the course of the world, wherein there occurs such a we think simply of an object we have a Consciousness, that is, a variety of events, each one can find his own particular view justified.

In so far as we think of Consciousness we be it ever so peculiar. In our ordinary life we have consciousness but we are [Legal] , Good and Religious. We judge upon our Sentiment [Gemat] not conscious that we are a Consciousness; there is much in use that is or Feeling [Gifiihl] that a deed of this or that character is good or even corporeal of which we are unconscious; for example, the vital bad. Moreover, we have a Feeling of Religion; we are affected functions which minister to our self-preservation we possess without religiously. What Feeling says of the deed by way of approval or being conscious of their precise constitution, this we only acquire disapproval contains merely the immediate expression, or the mere through Science.

Also, from a spiritual standpoint, we are much assurance, that something is so or is not so. Feeling gives no reasons more than we know. The external obj ects of our Consciousness are for its decision, nor does it decide with reference to reasons. What those which we distinguish from ourselves and to which we ascribe kind of Feeling we have, of approval or of disapproval,. The inner objects, on the other hand, are experience of a Sentiment. Feeling is, however, inconstant and determinations or faculties, [i.

They do not changeable. It is at one time in one state and at another in a different subsist in separation from one another but only in the Ego. Feeling is, in short, something su bjective. An obj ect of Feeling is Consciousness functions theoretically or practically. If I say: 'I feel thus about it' or 'It is my sentiment toward it' , I then say only what belongs to me as an 4 individual. I leave undecided whether it is also the same in other Theoretical Consciousness considers that which is and leaves it as it persons.

When I, upon any occasion, appeal simply to my Feeling, I is. Practical [Consciousness], on the other hand, is the active do not desire to enter upon the reasons [and] consequently upon consciousness which does not leave what is as it is but produces universal relations. I withdraw myself within myself and express only changes therein and produces from itself determinations and objects. The Obj ective, or the universal, is the Intelligible, or the object; I am determined by the obj ect or the obj ect is determined by Concept [Notion].

In tions of the obj ect as they are. I leave the object as it is and seek to 'Ideas' of this sort we have an obj ect before us in its external and make my ideas conform to it. I have determinations in myself and the unessential existence. In Thinking, on the contrary, we separate object also has determinations within it. The content of the Idea about from the obj ect its external, merely unessential side, and consider the the object should conform to what the obj ect is.

The determinations object merely in its essence. Thinking penetrates through the external of the obj ect in-itself are rules for me. The truth of my Ideas consists phenomenon to the internal nature of the thing and makes it its in their correspondence with the constitution and the determinations object.

It leaves the contingent side of the thing out of consideration. The law for our Consciousness, in so far as it is It takes up a subj ect not as it is in immediate appearance, but severs theoretical, is that it must not be completely passive but must direct its the unessential from the essential and thus abstracts from it:"" In activity to receiving the obj ect. Something can be an obj ect for our Intuition we have single objects before us. Thinking brings them perception without our having on that account a consciousness of it into relation with each other or compares them.

In Comparison it when we do not direct our activity to it. This activity in reception is singles out what they have in common with each other and omits that called Attention. The universal Idea contains less determinateness than the single obj ect 5 which belongs under this universal, since one arrives at the universal The Ideas which we acquire through Attention we excite in ourselves only by leaving out something from the single thing; on the other through the power of Imagination, whose activity consists in this: hand, the universal includes more under it or has a much greater that it calls up in connection with the intuition of one obj ect the image extension.

In so far as Thinking produces a universal object, the of another in some way or other linked with it. It is not necessary that activity of abstracting belongs to it and hence it has the Form of the the object, to which the Imagination links the image of another, be universal as, for example, in the universal object 'Man'. But the present; it may be present only in an idea of it.

The most extensive content of the universal obj ect does not belong to it as an activity of work of the Imagination is Language. Language consists in external abstracting but is given to Thinking and is independent of it and signs and sounds through which one makes known what he thinks, present on its own account.

Language consists in Words, which are nothing else To Thinking there belong manifold determinations which express than signs of thoughts. For these signs there are again found in a connection between the manifold phenomena that is universal and writing other signs called letters. They make known our thoughts necessary. The connection as it exists in Sensuous Intuition is merely without our having to speak them. A stone, for example, makes by its fall an impression In Speech a certain sound is sensuously present and therein we have upon a yielding mass. In the Sensuous Intuition is contained the fact the intuition of a sound.

But we do not stop at this because our of the falling of the stone and the fact of an impression made in the Imagination links to it the idea of an absent obj ect. Here then we have yielding mass where the stone touched it. These two phenomena, the two different objects, a sensuous determination and another idea falling of the stone and the impression on the yielding mass, have a linked to it.

Here the idea counts solely as the essence and as the succession in time. But this connection contains, as yet, no necessity: meaning of what is sensuously present which is thus a mere sign. The on the contrary it is possible, for all that is therein stated, that the one given content confronts a content which we have produced.


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When, on the contrary, the relation of these two 6 phenomena to each other is determined as cause and effect, or as the In ordinary life, the expressions to have an Idea and to Thin k [vorstellen relation of Causality, then this connection is a necessary one or a as opposed to den k en] are used interchangea b ly and we thus dignify connection of the Understanding. The Mind posits Hegel's comments are still valid for other Asiatic forms of hieroglyphic writing. We made external as far as its form is concerned, which form is that of a come first by Reflection to distinguish what is Ground and mere internal.

The content of this determination is still to remain Consequent, Internal and External, Essential and Unessential. The [after negation of the form] ; e. If the determinations] something which is present without its assistance. The house which is to be built according to the intention and that which is built 7 according to the plan are the same house.

Although something may be in the wood, and the other materials. The shape of the external is changed; Mind which came from without as a content not dependent upon the it is brought into quite other combinations than existed before. These Mind, yet the form always belongs to the latter; e.

In a pure Concept, e. They act from instinct, with designs and purposes to realize, This form is thus of the Mind's own determining. The essential and thus rationally. Since they do this unconsciously, however, we difference between the theoretical and the practical functions of the cannot properly speak of them as authors of Voluntary Acts. They Mind consists in this: that in the theoretical the form alone is have Desires and Impulses, but no Rational Will. In speaking of determined by the Mind while, on the other hand, in the practicfll man's impulses and desires, it is usual to include the Will.

But, more function the content also proceeds from the Mind. In Right, for accurately speaking, the Will is to be distinguished from Desire. The example, the content is personal freedom. This belongs to the Mind. Will, in distinction from Desire, is called the Higher Appetite. With The practical function recognizes determinations as its own in so far animals even Instinct is to be distinguished from their impulses and as it wills them. Even if they are alien determinations, or given from desires, for though Instinct is an acting from Impulse and Desire it, without, they must cease to be alien in so far as I will them: I change however, does not terminate with its immediate externalization but the content into mine and posit it through myself.

It is an acting in which there is involved also a relation to something else; 8 e. This is not yet quite Theoretical Activity starts from something externally present and properly to be called an Act, but it contains a design in it, namely, converts it into an Idea. Practical Activity, on the other hand, starts provision for the future. This is called resolve, intention, or Impulse is, in the first place, something internal, something which direction and makes the internal actually external and gives to it begins a movement from itself, or produces a change by its own existence.

Impulse proceeds from itself. Although it may be awakened ity is called Act. Mechanical causes produce mere 9 external or mechanical effects which are completely determined by The Act is, in general terms, a union of the internal and external. The their causes, in which therefore nothing is contained which is not internal determination, from which it begins, has to be cancelled and already present in the cause; e.

On the contrary, if I act whether, in the second place, the means are not too important to be upon a living creature my influence upon it becomes something quite sacrificed for this impulse. Reflection compares the different impulses different from what it was in me. The activity of the living creature is and their purposes with the fundamental end and purpose of Being. In the second place, Impulse is a limited in respect to content [and] One, however, is better adapted for this than another. Hence b is contingent as regards the aspect of its gratification, since it is Reflection has to compare impulses and ascertain which are more dependent upon external circumstances.

Impulse does not transcend closely allied to the fundamental purpose and are best adapted to aid its purpose [end] and is therefore spoken of as blind. It gratifies itself, its realization by their gratification. In Reflection begins the transition let the consequences be what they may. Nature is, however, under the rule necessity. Something is necessary when only this and not something of necessity because everything in Nature is limited, relative or exists else can happen.

Reflection has before it not only the one immediate only in relation to something else. But what exists only in relation to object but also another or its opposite. It has its ground in that [something else] and is a necessitated being. In so far as 12 man has immediately determined Impulses he is subj ected to Nature, This Reflection just described is, however, a merely relative affair.

Although it transcends the finite, yet it always arrives again at the finite; e. Likewise, have in themselves necessity for him. Reflection signifies, in when we go back in time beyond the present into the past we can general, the cutting off from or reduction [A b k urzung] of the imagine a period of ten thousand or thirty thousand years. Though immediate. Reflection in respect of light consists in this, that the such reflection proceeds from one particular point in space or time to rays [of light] which, in-themselves, beam forth in straight lines are another, yet it never gets beyond space or time.

Such is also the case bent back from this direction. Mind has Reflection. It is not confined in the Reflection which is both practical and relational. It leaves some to the immediate but may transcend it and proceed to something else; one immediate inclination, desire or impulse and proceeds to another e. In so far as it is relative it consequences or of a similar event or also of its causes. When the only falls again into another impulse, moves round and round in a Mind goes out to something immediate it has removed the same from circle of appetites and does not elevate itself above the sphere of itself.

It has reflected itself into itself. It has gone into itself. It has impulses as a whole. It is, therefore, a very great difference whether above this entire sphere of the finite; in other words, it abandons the one is or has something and whether he knows that he is or has it; for sphere of the lower appetites, in which man is determined by nature example, ignorance or rudeness of the sentiments or of behaviour are and dependent on the outside world.

Finitude consists, on the limitations which one may have without knowing it. In so far as one whole, in this: that something has a limit, i. Reflection posited or that here it stops, that through this limit it is related to an upon them is already a first step beyond them. Infinite Reflection, however, consists, in this: that the Ego is Impulses, as natural determinations, are limitations. Through no longer related to another, but is related to itself; in other words is reflection UpOllr them man begins to transcend them.

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The first its own obj ect. This pure relation to myself is the Ego, the root of the Reflection concerns the means, whether they are commensurate with Infinite Being itself. It is the perfect abstraction from all that is finite. Th is pure Form! It is able, relation [to these motives, etc.

In truth, however, the Ego did not however, by means of reflection, to pass over from indeternlinateness stand in a merely passive relation but was essentially active therein. The causal relation here does not indeterminateness; i. The circumstances do not stand in the relation of cause nor my At this place enters the Act of Resolving [Volition] for Reflection Will in that of effect.

In the causal relation the effect follows precedes it and consists in this; that the Ego has before it several necessarily when the cause is given. As reflection, however, I can determinations indefinite as to number and yet each of these must be transcend each and every determination which is posited by the in one of two predicaments: it necessarily is or is not a determination circuillstances. In so far as a man pleads in his defence that he was led of the something under consideration.

The Act of Resolution cancels astray through circumstances, incitements , etc. Circumstances or motives have only so the absolute indeterminateness of the Ego. In so far, it seems to be neither necessary nor possible for man The Freedom of the Will is freedom in general, and all other to make them his own. Simply as natural determinations they do not freedoms are mere species thereof.

He, therefore, is able force or property or faculty which possesses freedom. Just as when to regard what belongs to his nature as something alien, so that, the omnipotence of God is spoken of it is not understood that there consequently, it is only in him, only belongs to him in so far as he are still other beings besides him who possess omnipotence. There is makes it his own or follows with his volition his natural impulses. These species of freedom b elong to the universal concept of 16 Freedon1 in so far as it applies to special objects. Religious Freedom T o hold a man responsible for a n Act means t o impute o r attribute to consists in this: that religious ideas, religious deeds, are not forced him guilt or innocence.

A rehglOn whIch IS forced idiots. I n s o far a s h e i s punished the demand i s made that time. In the former, among the ancients, Deed was attributed in its he shall see that he is punished j ustly and, if he sees this, although he entire extent to man. He had to do penance for the entire compass of may wish to be freed from the punishment as an external suffering his actions and no distinction was made if he was conscious of only yet, in so far as he concedes that he is justly punished, his Universal one aspect of his act and unconscious of the others.

He was Will approves of the punishment. Part of him was referred to another The Will-of-Choice [ Arbitrariness] i s freedom, but only formal Being; e. Aj ax, when he slew the oxen and sheep of the Greeks in a freedom or freedom in so far as one's Will relates to something state of insanity and rage caused by his not receiving the arms of limited.

Two aspects must here be distinguished: a in how far the Achilles, did not attribute his crime to his madness, as though he Will does not remain identical with itself in it and b in how far it were another being while insane, but he took the whole deed upon. The limited content which it has taken up is therefore upon all.

Each one could act according to his own pleasure and would something else than it itself; e. That the Will is universal flows a going or a seeing one. I thus enter a relation not identical to from the concept of its freedom. Each one has natural abilities and determinations which others determination from myself as something alien, for the acts of lack. These differences between individuals do not concern the Will going and seeing are not posited in me by nature but by myself in in itself, for it is free. In so far as this is the case it is evidently no alien ness of the Will or in the fact that it has no determined nature in it.

The Will by itself is thus a Universal Will. The particularity or individuality of man does not stand in the way of the universality of This freedom is only formal freedom because, together with my the Will but is subordinated to it. An Act which is good legally or se lf- iden tity, there is present also, at the same time, non-identity with morally, although done by some one individual, is assented to by all myself or, in other words, there is a limited content in the Ego.

When others. They thus recognize themselves, or their own wills, in it. It is in common life we speak of freedom, we ordinarily understand, under the same case here as with works of art. Even those who could never the expression caprice or relative freedom, the liberty to do or to produce such a work find expressed in it their own nature. Such a refrain from doing something or other. In the limited Will we can work shows itself, therefore, as truly universal.

It receives the greater have formal freedom in so far as we distinguish the particular content applause the less it exhibits the idiosyncrasy of its author. He are also beyond and above it. If we are in a passion or if we act may believe, indeed, that it is directly opposed to his Will, even through a natural impulse we have no formal freedom.


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Since our though it is his [true] Will. The criminal who is punished may wish, Ego, in this emotion, gives itself up wholly it seems to us to be of course, that the punishment be warded off but the Universal Will something unlimited [ or infinite]. Our Ego is not out[ side] of it and brings with it the decree that the criminal shall be punished. It must does not separate itself from it. This constitutes the fundamental Free Will or Win-of-Choice [ Arbitrariness ] through this: the characteristic of his nature. Nevertheless, besides freedom he has Absolute Will has only itself for obj ect, while the Relative Will has?

With the Relative Will, with, for example, the Impulse for knowledge, for the preservation of his life, health, etc. In appetite, the object of that Will [its content] is all that concerns it. But these special determinations Law has not man as such for its object. It the Absolute [Will] must be carefully distinguished from Wilfulness. One may do insisting that its will as such shall be respected.

A distinction is here to something with the best of intentions and yet the deed be not lawful be made. On the other hand an act, for example it is his will, without offering a rational ground for it, i. While strength of will is have a bad motive since I may have sought not what was just and necessary, such as holds unwaveringly by a rational purpose, on the lawful but the inj ury of another. Upon Law as such the intention or other hand mere stubbornness, such as arises from idiosyncrasy and is motive has no influence. The true Free Will has no Thirdly, it is not a matter of conviction as to whether that which I contingent content.

It alone is not contingent. This holds particularly with regard to pUnIshment. Although an effort is made to convince the criminal that 21 he has violated what is Law, yet his conviction or non-conviction has The Pure Will has nothing to do with particularity. In so far as no influence on the justice that is meted out to him.

It very often happens that one does impulses and inclinations. Such a content is a given one and is not what is right merely through fear of punishment or fear of unpleasant posited absolutely through the will. The fundamental principle of the consequences, such, for instance, as the loss of reputation or credit. Will is, therefore, that its freedom be established and preserved.

Or it happens that one does right from the conviction that he will be Besides this it has indeed many different kinds of determinations: it rewarded in another life.

Law, however, as s. Still they are purposes for the reason that they are means and conditions for the 23 realization of the freedom of the Will, which [realization] demands Law must be distinguished from Morality. Something may be well regulations and laws for the purpose of restraining caprice and enough from a legal point of view which is not allowable from a inclination or mere 'good pleasure'. In a word, the impulses and moral poin t of view.

The Law grants me the disposition of my. It may to that existence wherein he is a Free Will. On this view many seem as though Morality permitted many things which the Law does restraints are imposed upon the desires and likings of children. They not, but Morality demands not merely the observance of Justice must learn to obey and consequently to annul their mere individual or towards others but requires also that the disposition to do right shall particular wills and, moreover, [to annul also] to this end their be present, that the law shall be respected as Law.

Morality demands sensuous inclinations and appetites that, by this means, their Will first that the legal right shall be obeyed and where it ceases enters may become free. In order that an act may have moral value insight is necessary into. Its nature [as to] whether it be right or wrong, good or evil.

The thinking upon the consequences of an act is Morality. Children or such uncivilized nations escape the commission important, for the reason that one does not remain standing by an of a multitude of bad acts because they have no ideas of them: i. Through its because the essential relations are not yet extant under which alone manifold consideration one is led to the nature of Acts.

Such non-committal of evil acts has no moral According to the standpoint of Law man is his own object as an value. But they do perform acts which are not in accordance with absolutely free existence; according to the moral standpoint on the Morality and yet, for the reason that no insight exists into their nature contrary he is self-obj ect, an individual in his special existence, a [as to] whether they are good or bad, they are not strictly Moral acts.

If the Private conviction stands opposed to the mere faith in the authority external circumstances in which one man stands with another are so of another. If my act is to have moral value my conviction must enter situated that he fulfils his vocation, that is his Fortune. This into the act. The act must be mine in a whole sense.

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If I act on the well-being depends partly on his own will and partly upon external authority of another my act is not fully my own; it is the act of an circumstances and other men. Morality has, also, the particular alien conviction in me. Well-being, as the adaptation of the external to our another. Originally man followed his natural inclinations without internal being, we call Pleasure.

Happiness is not a mere individual reflection or else with reflections that were one-sided, wrong, unjust pleasure but an enduring condition [which is] in part the actual and under the dominion of the senses. In this condition the best thing Pleasure itself [and] , in part also, the circumstances and means for him was to learn to obey, for the reason that his will was not yet a through which one always has, at will, the ability to create a state of rational one.

Through this obedience the negative advantage is gained comfort and pleasure for himself. In Happiness, however, as in Pleasure, there lies the idea of such obedience can Man attain to independence and freedom. In this good fortune [good luck] : that it is an accidental matter whether or no sphere he always follows another, whether it be his own will, still the external circumstances agree with the internal determinations of immersed in the senses, or whether it be the will of another.

As a the desires. Blessedness can be or something alien to his true will. The one who is obedient to the predicated only of God, in whom willing and accomplishment of his Law of Reason is obedient from the point of view of his unessential absolute power is the same. For man, however, the harmony of the nature only, which stands under the dominion of that which is alien external with his internal is limited and contingent.

In this he is to him. On the other hand he is independent self-determination, for dependent. The Disposition [ Gesinnung] is thus in the moral realm an essential 24 element. It consists in this: that one does his duty for its own sake. It The Moral Win, in regard to its disposition and conVIctIOn, is is, therefore, an immoral motive to do anything out of fear of imperfect. It is a Will which aims at perfection but a is driven towards punishment or in order to preserve another's good opinion.

This is a the attainment of the same through the impulses of sensuousness and heterogeneous motive, for it is not from the nature of the thing itself. The consequences of a good act may WIthIn and [b] the perfection of the power to attain holy ends [or sometimes involve much that is evil and, on the contrary, an evil act purposes]. The proposition of the Law is therefore to be 1 expressed thus : Each should be treated by the other as a Person.

Law must be considered: Explanatory: The concept of Personality includes in itself selfhood or individuality which is free or universal. People have Personality 1 in its Essence, through their spiritual nature. LAW Explanatory: There are limitations of freedom and law which permit people to be treated not as persons but as chattels, e. These are, however, only positive laws or rights, According to Law the Universal Will should have full sway without which are opposed to Reason or Absolute Right. Law applies to man only in so far as he is a wholly free being. Law consists in this : that each individual be respected and treated by Explanatory: In an absolute sense no constraint is possible against man the other as a free being; for only under this condition can the free because he is a free being and can assert his will against necessity and Will have itself as obj ect and content in the other.

Constraint takes place Explanatory: The freedom of the individual lies at the basis of Law and when some condition is attached to a man's existence in such a way the Law consists in this: that I treat the other as a free being. Reason that, if he would maintain his existence, he must submit to the demands lawful behaviour. Essentially, every man is a free being. Since man's existence is dependent upon external objects, Men differ from each other in their special conditions and peculiarities in that respect, he is liable to alien interferences.

Man is externally but this difference does not concern the Abstract Will as such. In the constrained only when he wills something which involves another; it Abstract Will all are the same and when a man respects another he depends upon his will whether he will have one and with it th e oth er or respects himself.

It follows that by the violation of the rights of one neith er of th em. The external constraint, of course, depends upon his individual the rights of all are violated. This sympathy with others is will, that is, in how far he places himself under it. Hence the external quite a different thing from the sympathy which one feels at another's constraint is only relative.

It is legal constraint when it is exercised for misfortune. For, although the injury or loss which a man suffers in the purpose of enforcing j ustice against the individual. This species of gifts of fortune which gifts though desirable are not in themselves constraint has an aspect according to which it is not a constraint and essential concerns me, yet I cannot say that it absolutely ought not to does not contradict the dignity of a free being, for the reason that the have happened. Such misfortunes belong to the particularity of man.

Will in-and-for-itself is also the Absolute Will of each individual. In all our sympathy we separate misfortunes from ourselves and look Freedom is not found where the arbitrary will or caprice of the upon them as something apart from us. On the other hand, at the individual [dominates] but where Law prevails. What is not expressly forbidden is allowed. Of object. The first kind principle, of which all others are only special applications, reads thus: of appropriation is that of Physical Seizure. It has this defect, that 'Thou shalt leave undisturbed the property of another.

The second, more property. In this case the form of what is mine is directly connected with the object and is, therefore, in and for itself a sign that the 8 material also belongs to me. To this kind [of taking possession] The Will, when it subsumes a thing under itself, makes it its own. An imperfect form of property in land is the Explanatory: To the subsumption of something there belong two use of a territory without its cultivation: e. I subsume something use territory for pasturage, hunters for hunting grounds [and] individual when I attribute to it a universal determination.

This fishermen the sea coast or river bank for their purposes. Such an subsumption occurs in the Act ofJudgement. In the Judgement that appropriation is still superficial because the actual use is only a which subsumes is the Predicate and that which is subsumed is the temporary one [and] not a permanent form of possession closely Subject. The ' act of taking possession' is the expression of the attached to the object. Appropriation by merely Designation of the Judgement that a thing becomes mine. Here my will is that which obj ect is imperfect.

That designation which does not, as in an subsumes. I give to the thing the predicate that it is mine. The will is improvement, constitute the essential nature of the thing is a mere the subsuming activity for all external things, since it is in itself the external affair; what meaning it has is more or less foreign to its own universal essence. All things which are however, not self-related are essence but it also has, as well, a meaning peculiarly it own which is only necessitated and not free. This fact gives man the right to take not connected with the nature of the thing designated. The possession of all external things and to make of them something designation is thus arbitrary.

It is more or less a matter of different from what they are. In doing so he treats them only in convenience what the designation of a thing shall be. Explanatory: A thing which already belongs to another cannot be My possession is acknowledged for the reason that it is an act of the free taken possession of by me, not because it is a chattel, but because it is will, which is something absolute in itself [and] in which lies the h is chattel.

For were I to take possession of the chattel I would then universal [condition] that I regard the will of others as something annul its predicate to be h is and thereby negate his will. The Will is absolute. It is not necessary that Possession and Property be always 13 connected. It is possible for me to have Property without being in Those possessions are inaliena b le which are not so much m y property Possession of it.

When, for example, I lend something to another the as they are constituent elements of my innermost person or essence; property still remains mine though I part with the possession of it. Dominium [i. Property is Explanatory: Only those possessions are alienable which already, by the legal side of the Dominium and Possession is only the external their nature, are of an external character. Personality, for example, side, namely that something is in my power. The legal right is the cannot be viewed as external to me, for in so far as a man has given up side of my absolute free will which has declared something to be his personality he has reduced himself to a thing.

But such an someone else's. This will must be acknowledged by others because it alienation would be null and void. For instance, a man would alienate is in-and-for-itself and, in so far as the already stated conditions have his ethical nature [Sittlich k eit] were he to bind himself to another to been observed, Property has, therefore, an internal and an external perform all manner of acts, crimes as well as [morally] indifferent side.

The latter, by itself, is the Appropriation, the former is the acts. But such a bond would have no binding force because it Act of Will which must be acknowledged as such. It seems alienates the freedom of the will and, in the latter, each one must contingent or arbitrary whether the acknowledgement of others stand for himself. Right or wrong acts belong to him who commits should be added to the fact of taking possession.

This is necessary, them and, because they are so constituted, I cannot alienate them. If a religious community, or even an ment is not based on reciprocity. I do not acknowledge your right individual, leaves it for a third party to determine what shall because you acknowledge mine, nor vice versa, but the ground of this constitute its faith, such an obligation could be set aside by either reciprocal acknowledgement is the nature of the transaction itself.

G.W.F. Hegel - The Philosophical Propaedeutic

I party. No wrong at least could be done to the party with whom the acknowledge the will of others because the will is to be acknowledged agreement had been made because what I have given over to him a bsolutely. Explanatory: My Powers and Skills are my property in the most Explanatory: One can alienate only a limited use of his powers, since peculiar sense, but they have also an external aspect. Abstractly this use, or the circumscribed effect, is distinct from the Power itself.

But also in themselves Powers distinguished from the Power in-itself. The Power is the inner or and Skills are single and limited and they do not constitute my universal, as opposed to its expression. The expressions are an essence. My essence, the intrinsic universal, is distinct from these existence in time and space. The Power in-itself is not exhausted in particular determinations. Finally, they are external in their use. In the. But, secondly, the Power must act and express product is some external existence.

Power, as such, does not lie in the itself, otherwise it is not a power. Thirdly, the entire extent of its use thereof but preserves itself notwithstanding that it is extetnalized effects is again, itself, the universal which the Power is. For this and that this, its externalization, has made it a separate existence. This reason man cannot alienate the entire use of his powers; he would, in expression of Power is also an externality in so far as it is something so doing, alienate his personality. In so far as something is my property I have connected it with my will but this connection is not absolute.

For if it 15 were my will would necessarily be involved. But I have, in this case, An alienation to another involves m y consent to resign the property to only particularized my will and, because it is free, can overcome this him, and h is consent to accept it. This twofold consent, in so far as it particularity. I am therefore bound by the Explanatory: Contract is a special mode by which one becomes the contract to give possession. Treat here of acquisition by Testament. The mode, already explained, of becoming an owner was that of immediate 17 appropriation of some thing that was res nullius.

An Encroachment [Trespass] upon the sphere of my freedom by another may occur a through his having my property in his 1 The simplest form of contract is the Gift-Contract: in this only possession as h is own; i. A valid donation is a Contract because the wills of both instead of himself, had the right to it he would surrender it to me. In parties must be involved: the one willing to resign the property to this he respects Law as such and only asserts that in this instance it is the other without receiving an equivalent thereof and the other on his side.

But Law is not 'necessary' equivalent value [to me]. To this belongs the twofold consent on in the sense that necessity is used when speaking of physical nature, the part of each: to give something to and to receive something e. A flower must from the other.

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