Beyond providing motivation for the secret identity trope, this appears as an integrationist appeal: acceptance will come, if mutants continue to serve and protect rather than turn to violence. The early X-Men policed mutants and quashed dissent. Conversely, Magneto and his ilk were terrorists and fanatics, not activists e. EUX1 2; 3; 4; 5; 7; 18; Michael 18—20 that constrained much Jewish and white liberal rights activism. Read in this light, the early X-Men appear to stand for a type of peaceful racial liberalism common among Jewish civil rights activists, while the evil mutants stand for Black Power and other emergent radical activisms cf.
Brodkin [esp. These X-Men, then, to the extent they should be regarded as ethnically or racially marked, were framed as a model minority.
They used their difference in constructive ways, contributed to American security and society, and deferred to authority. Patterson —, , , ; Greenberg. The mutant-hunting robots soon attempt to enslave mankind to protect them, showing how the intolerance of a few becomes a danger to all. Too often his cure is deadlier by far than the evil he denounces! Edgar Hoover and Joseph McCarthy that had skirted totalitarian means in the pursuit of a communist-free America e. Greenberg — The Sentinels, then, are dangerous also because they threaten civil liberties.
If Magneto had been a symbolic totalitarian before, he returned in X-Men 43 Apr. Patterson; Greenberg. Thus, she symbolically stresses what from a liberal perspective was a politically destructive and paralyzing potential of parochial essentialism.
Her choice is not only between working for individual-centered integration or making particularistic claims to group-based rights, but also suggestive of the growing trouble among Jewish civil rights proponents to reconcile competing liberal positions, such as the relationship between civil rights activism and respect for law and the democratic process or between immediate equality and working within the system Greenberg — Rather, the strongest indicator of rights-consciousness in the construction of the series perhaps lies in the intensity of its opposition to militant activism. Prell [esp.
The next issue was the first in what would become a decade and a half long run for writer Chris Claremont, a culturally literate British-born science fiction writer and college student. Following a growing general inclination toward self-realization in American culture Schulman chap. The ethnic revival that began in the mids had gone into full swing and the new team was multicultural. Malcolm; Baron. EXM1 , np [Feb. Over the years she adapted, her sense of self becoming destabilized in the process.
I feel as though I stand at a cross-roads. To remain an X-Man—especially as leader—I must sacrifice the beliefs that give my life meaning. Breaking from her reverie, she notices that the gentle rain she has summoned to water her plants has grown into a storm, her doubts manifesting as violence.
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Bereft of self. She eventually accepts that she has changed from the Africanized girl she was when Xavier found her to the Americanized woman she has become e. Shortly after this measure of closure, however, she is physically regressed to childhood, becoming amnesiac and beginning a new journey of self-discovery esp. EXM9 [Sep. It seemed to me that no human being could survive twenty odd years of being like that.
It would be like the ultimate extension of being black. He knows who he is. He accepts it. Nightcrawler thus echoes the language of existentialism and recalls the notion of authenticity by accepting himself; he does not try to hide from who he is, since his physical difference will always mark him as Other, but embraces it cf.
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He becomes for a time at peace with himself. One of the most significant features of the X-Men comic books is that difference is outward and inward, both voluntary and involuntary. By eluding easy classification, mutants resemble Jews. Looking like everyone else, yet perceived as different, they are easily misunderstood. They experience only provisional acceptance and a precarious sense of belonging. The language of those who persecute them is comparable to Nazi rhetoric against Jews In that issue, Kitty Pryde joins the X-Man Colossus in defending Nightcrawler against a mob who are out for mutant blood.
The mob only cares that he is not human. And not so long ago, in this country, people felt the same about blacks. Some still do.
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Is that right? Or, better yet, take our scalps, like they did in the Wild West. Kitty Pryde is Jewish and she uses the particular to say the universal. Survivors have been interned in concentration camps. Nonetheless, the Holocaust appears not as the Nazi genocide of European Jewry, but as rhetorical gesturing about victimization. Set in New York, Washington, D. Lasch wrote:. Angry citizens […] see themselves as victims of policies over which they have no control […] as victims not only of bureaucracy, big government, and unpredictable technologies but also, in many cases, of high-level plots and conspiracies involving organized crime, intelligence agencies, and politicians at the upper reaches of government.
Costello — Cambodia is probably the second. Schulman 92—96; Ammerman; Lund — We are feared. Scattered remarks proliferated to the point where they eventually were to be found in almost every issue. At the end of April, , EXM5 , an issue otherwise devoted to a fight against an extraterrestrial, Xavier is brutally beaten by a group of anti-mutant bigots, and they return to try and kill him four issues later. One man in Nov. Indeed, in Late Sept. There are also references to Nazism and the Holocaust scattered throughout the run e.
EXM5 ; EXM8 ; EXM9 ; EXM10 , but rarely do they appear as anything more than passing condemnations, meant to put the various villains, enemies, and bigots in a bad light and to accentuate the viciousness of Other-hatred, wherever it is directed. DiPaolo —; Malcolm; Baron. But the Holocaust is one of the most debated events in human history, and myriad meanings have been attributed to and abstracted from it over the years, often in tune with changing political climates.
Historian Peter Novick, Alvin H. In issue Oct.
As our lives were nothing to them, so human lives became nothing to me. I believed so much in my destiny, in my personal vision, that I was prepared to pay any price, make any sacrifice to achieve it. But I forgot the innocents who could suffer in the process. Can you not appreciate the irony, Ororo? In my zeal to remake the world, I have become much like those I have always hated and despised np. Magneto ultimately returned to his villainous ways because of how other writers used him, so it impossible to know how Claremont would have further developed him.
And nowhere in all of this is Magneto identified as Jewish. X-Men , in short, has served as the screen for all sorts of projection. Therefore, it is especially important to strive for distance in critical interpretation.
In comics studies, assumptions and expectations can perhaps be similarly checked by employing stricter methodologies: the evidentiary base should be clearly delineated; the delineated corpus should determine the aim and scope of the study; source criticism should be vigorously applied; materials should be thoroughly historicized and contextualized; and the range of secondary literature should be expanded.
Similarly, ethnoracial identities are not timeless and static and their histories are similarly marked by changes and ruptures that redefine established concepts or introduce new ones cf. Sarna; Wenger. Thus, the first step in any study should always be to clearly state which part of continuity is to be studied. The works of writers like Rabbi Simcha Weinstein, Danny Fingeroth, and Arie Kaplan are not tested for scholarly rigor or quality and, most importantly, do not aspire to academic rigor. When these generic differences are ignored and they are cited as authoritative sources e.
Malcolm n18; Royal 1n2 , parochial cultural myths can be disseminated into comics scholarship. With repetition, they can become naturalized, possibly muddling the historical record and making new insights into historical connections between comics and identity increasingly inaccessible. Granted, interviews and archival materials from early comics history are scarce, but the closer one gets to the present, the more one can find.
Many artists and writers have been treated in biographies and hagiographies; see the previous paragraph. Even when no archival or biographical materials are available, however, secondary literature can be used to elucidate contexts. Malcolm, again, fails to take this material into account; her essay lacks perspective on the development of Jewish American and American perceptions and conceptions of the Holocaust, leading to an ahistorical treatment of the topic from a contemporary understanding.
Ideally, a critical perspective that pays attention to history, context, and biography, and takes authorial self-representation and stated intentions seriously should be developed as scholarship on comics and identity proceeds. In an ideal world, the meaning of neither comics characters nor cultural identities should be asserted without consideration of their contingency.
And no critical study should assume, for example, that simply because Jews wrote comics, they surreptitiously wrote their Jewishness into them or that, because there are Jews in some stories, it is ethnography. Nothing should take precedence over direct engagement and quotation of the comics themselves. From the shoddiest piece of Golden Age hackwork to the most ostensibly literary graphic novel, every work of comics speaks volumes about the identity climate in which it was created; as scholars, we should try to set aside our preconceived notions and listen. Ammerman, Nancy T.
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