Self Regulation. Bandura believes we use both reactive and proactive strategies to regulate our behavior. After they have reacted, and achieved that particular goal state, then they can proactively set a new goal for themselves. Internal Factors Affecting Self-Regulation. Bandura has identified three major factors which contribute to internal self-regulation. Self-Observation : We regulate our behavior by monitoring our own performance and adjusting our behavior accordingly. The self-observed factors depend partially on the environment :. In mastery situations, we pay attention to quality, quantity, speed, and originality.
In interpersonal situations, we pay more attention to sociability and morality of behavior. Judgmental Process : A subjective evaluation of the consequences of our behavior. Many ways to make these judgments :. Personal Standards : evaluate our performance without comparing it to others. Standard of Reference : Comparing our performance to the performance of others, or to a "norm" an external standard. Judgmental Process continued. Finally, our judgments are affected by the value we place on a task or skill.
Values help to determine where and how we focus our efforts. Finally, our self-regulatory processes are affected by Performance Attribution , which is how we explain success and failure in our life. Internal attributions of success will lead to extended effort in times of difficulty, while external attributions can lead to. Affective Self-reaction helps show how cognitions help drive behavior and why human behavior is not solely a function of our environment.
When do we activate and deactivate Self-Regulatory Processes? Self-Regulation is not automatic, it must be triggered by some standard violation. After an individual has adopted social and moral standards of conduct, we activate self-regulation. Internalized Self-Sanctions : Individual does not want to violate personal standards because of self-punishment.
This process is referred to as Selective Activation. Disabling our Self-Regulatory Mechanisms. If the situation is ambiguous we cant decide whether our behavior violates standards or not , this may result in a disengagement of Internal Control.
This allows us to engage in morally or socially questionable behavior without self-reproach. Four ways to attempt this disengagement :. Four : Blame the victim. Comparing Freudian defense mechanisms, Adelerian safe guarding tendencies and Bandura's ideas of Self-regulation. Freudian Defense Mechanisms operate unconsciously and automatically to protect from anxiety. Adlerian Safeguarding Tendencies operate automatically, but can be conscious or unconscious. Bandura's Self-Regulation is consciously engaged or disengaged. How we act in a particular situation is partially dependent upon our cognitions concerning our ability to perform certain behaviors.
This judgment of behavioral ability is referred to as Self-Efficacy. Mastery Experiences. Vicarious Experiences. Social Persuasion. Physiological and Emotional Stress. Mastery Experiences : Successful previous experience increases Self-Efficacy while previous failures can lower self-efficacy. The more difficult the task successfully completed, the greater the increase in Self-Efficacy. Singular tasks can increase Self-Efficacy to a greater degree than shared tasks.
Failure is most likely to decrease self-efficacy when we believe we pout forth our full effort. Failure under conditions of high emotional distress will not effect self-efficacy as much as failure under normal stress conditions. Failure after your self-efficacy is firmly established will have less of an adverse affect on self-efficacy than early failure.
Occasional failure has little affect on efficacy. Social Modeling can affect self-efficacy. When we see a successful model, our self-efficacy can be raised. To the degree we feel that the model is similar to us, our self-efficacy can be affected. Vicarious experiences may have more affect when failure is modeled, than when success is modeled.
In order for social persuasion to affect self-efficacy. The activity that we are trying the self-efficacy for must be one that the individual can behaviorally accomplish. Strong Emotions typically lowers performance for difficult tasks. Strong Emotions typically raises performance for simple, repetitive tasks.
People allow their emotional state to affect their judgments of self-efficacy. Secondly, the realism of the source of the physiological arousal can affect performance:.