A multiple intervention study with 3. Can morality be taught? Research findings from modern moral psychology]. Second Edition. Berlin: Logos-Verlag. Rest, J. Postconventional moral thinking. A Neo-Kohlbergian approach. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum;. A significant body of research shows that such an approach leads to improvement not only in general reasoning skills, but also in ethical reasoning capabilities[…].
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In: Research Evidence in Education Library. Marin, L. Thinking Skills and Creativity, September Resnikskaya, A. Miller, B. Collaborative reasoning: a dialogic approach to group discussions. Cambridge Journal of Education Vol. Nucci , L. Integrating moral and social development within middle school social studies: a social cognitive domain approach.
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Journal of Moral Education 44 4 Research demonstrates that there are flow-on effects from the style of education employed in ethics classes[…]. Gorard, S. Philosophy for Children Evaluation report and Executive summary. Lipman, M. Philosophy and the cultivation of reasoning. Thinking: Journal of Philosophy for Children, Vol. Lyle, S. Language and Education, Trickey, S. An ethics education program of moderate duration 9 , 25 can facilitate development of the four abilities described by the IOM report, provided attention is directed to the educational principles the report outlines.
Statistically significant pre- to posttest changes effect sizes ranging from 0. Of particular interest was the way the model helped the referrals to deconstruct a summary judgment about their character as unethical or unprofessional and to see the self as lacking in particular capacities or abilities that could be further developed. An examination of the extensive practitioner self-assessment data 5 provides guidance for structuring instruction. Beginning the instructional process with a discussion of the distinguishing features of a profession and the expectations that follow was seen as uplifting and renewing.
Further, the use of cases to assess and facilitate ethical sensitivity and reasoning was viewed as relevant to professional practice. For students and practitioners alike, there is a clear hunger for help with strategies and language to deal with human interaction problems that have clear ethical implications. For further discussion of curriculum and resources to promote ethical implementation, see Bebeau and Monson 9.
Newly designed resources for assessing and promoting identity formation are provided in a chapter 7 , in Remediation in Medical Education. Next, the authors describe a remediation curriculum developed for a group of students who violated professional norms. This program has also been used to address individual transgressions e.
Lastly, the authors highlight strategies they have found effective in therapeutic interactions with individual students who present particular challenges. Evidence from the cited studies adds weight to earlier recommendations 17 for structuring educational programs that use active learning strategies to promote the development of competent, thoughtful, and responsible scientists. Because the formation of a professional identity seems to be the primary driver behind responsible conduct, a first step in designing an educational program in responsible research conduct is to begin by addressing the expectations of a scientist.
Ask students to respond to open-ended questions—in writing—which they can reflect upon as they learn about the values and normative practices that guide the research enterprise. By asking students to express the concepts in their own words, and in writing, misperceptions can be identified and addressed before they become an issue. Educators may wish to modify the PIE applied in medicine 7 and adapt the reflective learning activities for RCR education.
As argued in the IOM report, to develop thoughtful and responsible scientists who act with integrity and have a broad understanding of their role and a commitment to integrity in science, educators must do more than teach the rules and policies that apply to the conduct of research.
HANDBOOK OF MORAL AND CHARACTER EDUCATION, EDT. LARRY P. NUCCI AND DARCIA NARVAEZ.
Once the expectations of the scientist have been clarified, it is important to engage students in active learning using cases, if possible to facilitate the abilities that are necessary conditions in addition to a professional identity—ethical sensitivity, reasoning, and problem solving—for effective moral action. When selecting or designing case materials, the materials must be carefully structured to elicit the process of concern.
As argued above, too often cases are written and participants are asked: What should the protagonist do? Such a question focuses on problem solving rather than problem identification or moral reasoning. Whereas a skilled facilitator may be able to redirect focus to reasoning or problem identification, it is sometimes more difficult. For this reason, we provided an example Appendix 1 to show how to design stimulus materials that focus on the particular skill needed for effective problem identification, reasoning, or implementation.
With rather carefully targeted courses of moderate duration, it is possible to show gains in each of the abilities that give rise to responsible conduct. Our goal is not to develop the more advanced skills in ethical reasoning that might result from courses in moral philosophy.
[PDF] Chapter 7 Moral-Character Education - Semantic Scholar
Yet evidence shows that problem-based practice using cases can be especially effective in helping students recognize and subsequently avoid personal interest arguments while strengthening awareness and adherence to the rules of responsible research conduct. When researchers have attempted to study the connection among these elements, they usually do not find significant connections and are left with the conclusion that attitudes have little to do with knowing and behavior is often devoid of thinking and feeling.
A more profitable approach, as Rest proposed, and as illustrated by studies cited herein, is to study functional processes that must arise to produce behavior. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Microbiol Biol Educ. Published online Dec Muriel J. Author information Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Corresponding author. Phone: Fax: E-mail: ude. Published by the American Society for Microbiology. Abstract Drawing from multiple sources of evidence, this paper updates previous descriptions IOM, of measurement strategies and teaching techniques to promote four theoretically derived abilities thought to be necessary conditions for the responsible conduct of research.
The program should be designed in accordance with basic principles of adult learning. Ethical sensitivity Studies using well validated measures of ethical sensitivity illustrate that competence in the ability to interpret the moral dimension of professional problems is distinct from the ability to apply professional norms and values to determine what ought to be done.
Moral motivation and commitment When Rest proposed his FCM of moral functioning in the early s, moral motivation was featured, though less well articulated than the other three components.
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Implications for education An ethics education program of moderate duration 9 , 25 can facilitate development of the four abilities described by the IOM report, provided attention is directed to the educational principles the report outlines. Acknowledgments The author declares that there are no conflicts of interest. Anderson M. Bebeau MJ. Moral Educ. Evidence-based character development. Lost virtue: Professional character development in medical education: vol.
In: Kenny N, Shelton W, editors. Advances in Bioethics. Elsevier; Oxford, UK: The dental ethical sensitivity test Center for the Study of Ethical Development. University of Minnesota; Minneapolis, MN: Remediating lapses in professionalism. In: Kalet A, Chou C, editors. Remediation in medical education.
Moral motivation in different professions. Handbook of Moral Motivation. Sense Publishers; Rotterdam, The Netherlands: Guided by theory, grounded in evidence: a way forward for professional ethics education. In: Nucci L, Narvaez D, editors. Handbook of moral and character education. Routledge; Hillsdale, NJ: Professional identity formation and transformation across the life span. Springer; New York, NY: J Dent Educ. Beyond the promise: a perspective on research in moral education.
Brabeck MM, Sirin S. Colby A, Damon W. Some do care: contemporary lives of moral commitment.
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Sci Eng Ethics. Thomas Law J. In: N.
Integrity in scientific research Institute of Medicine. Rest JR.
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